PARISH OF BARONY OF GLASGOW
COUNTY OF LANARK, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR, PRESBYTERY OF GLASGOW.
By the Rev. Mr John Burns
Extent, Soil, Surface, Etc
The city of Glasgow, and the Barony parish, till the year 1595, made but one parish. But population having so much increased, that it was inconvenient for the inhabitants of the town and country to meet in one place, they were at that time disjoined; and the landward part of the parish, as distinguished from the town, was called the barony. This parish is both large and populous, extending from 2 to 5 or 6 miles around the city of Glasgow, except on the south side. The soil is various. In some places it is a rich clay, in others a light sand: towards the N. and N.E., it is a cold clay, or spongy and moorish, but considerably improved by the attention paid to draining, liming, and a better mode of cultivation adopted by the farmers; still, however, there is much room for improvements, and these are carrying on with considerable spirit in different parts. Though there are no high hills in the parish, there are many beautiful swells, which greatly diversify the appearance, and add much to the beauty of the country. On the banks of the Clyde, at Westthorn, and in many other places, the landscape is rich, various and delightful. The river winding through richly cultivated fields, and frequently lost among trees, which grow upon its banks; interspersed with many gentlemen's houses, and the large and populous city of Glasgow, with its numerous spires and venerable cathedral, present to the eye various striking views, and fill the mind with pleasing ideas of industry, wealth, fecundity, and happiness.
Climate and Diseases.- The climate is temperate, the air healthy, though rather moist, when compared with the eastern parts of Scotland, and many of the inhabitants live to an advanced age, though at present there are none above 90 years old. The diseases most prevalent are consumptions and fevers; which last, for want of proper attention to cleanliness, and a free circulation of fresh air, prove so infectious, as generally to go through the whole family, and relapses are very frequent. The common people, however, are now beginning to be more attentive than formerly to the cleanliness and ventilation of their houses. Indeed, from the increase of trade, and of wealth among them, their houses, and the whole style of their living is much improved within these few years. This season the small-pox has been very frequent among the children, and vast numbers have died. Inoculation is yet far from being generally practised, though the unreasonable prejudices entertained against it are gradually wearing off. In the villages, the great bulk of the inhabitants being employed in manufactures, many of the them are very subject to flatulency, and the diseases incident to sedentary people. And the weavers, probably from the want of due circulation by the pressure of the seat, are very often afflicted with what they call sore legs, or bad ulcers in their legs, very difficult to be healed. Lime-water has been used of late in many cases with great success.
Mineral Springs, and Minerals. - There are chalybeate springs in different parts of the parish, particularly on the side of the river Clyde, above Rutherglen bridge. [At Anderston there is a spring which contains one grain of mineral alkali or soda in the pint of water. And at Northwoodside, there is a sulphureous spring upon the side of the river Kelvin, which formerly was often used, it is said, with success, in scorbutic disorders. But for a considerable time past no attention has been paid to it, and the water of the river now runs into it.] This parish abounds with coal of an excellent quality, and sold at a very reasonable price, being laid down in the city of Glasgow, at the rate of 3s 9d the cart of 12 cwt. This cheapness of fuel is of the utmost importance to the comfort of the inhabitants, and the thriving of manufactures: And as the fields of coal in the neighbourhood as immense, it is to be hoped the price will always continue so moderate as to preserve to Glasgow the superiority she at present enjoys above most places. Indeed, were the price of coal to be raised so high as to injure the manufactures, the coal-owners themselves would equally suffer. The value of coal produced from the different mines may amount to about 30,000l. annually. Those belonging to James McNair, Esq. of Shettleston, produce from 5000l. to 6000l. Sterling annually.+1
(+1 On this colliery, the first steam-engine for drawing off the water from coal-pits, was created, in the year 1764. Since that time near 20 steam-engines have been set up in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. There are several strata or seams of coal of different thicknesses from one another. These all lie parallel to each other, but not parallel to the surface of the earth, having their dip, as it is termed by the colliers, or declination towards the river Clyde, and rising, as you retire from the river, nearer to the surface of the earth till they crop out. And what is very remarkable, the seams of coal on the other side of Clyde, also have their dip towards its bed; so that the strata on the different sides of the river, instead of lying in the same plane, are inclined to each other at a certain angle. In some pits, the strata of coal are of the following thicknesses: 1st, The upper coal from 4 to 4 1/2 feet thick: 2nd, Ell-coal from 2 1/2 to 3 feet: And 3d, Main coal from 44 1/2 to 5 1/2 feet. These are the only seams that have as yet been wrought. Above the coal there lies a thin but very rich stratum of iron-stone. Till within the few years that the Clyde iron-works were erected on the borders of this parish the whole iron-stone in this part of the country was disregarded, and sometimes proved a great incumbrance. Now, it is a source of wealth, and gives employment to several hands in this parish. Besides coal and iron-stone, there are beds of very good free-stone, particularly at Poffit (Possit?), much used in the city of Glasgow for building and flagging the sides of the streets. An on the east of the fir park, adjoining to the city, there is a large whinstone quarry, whence all the stones used for paving the streets have been brought.)
Manufactures. - The weaving manufacture is carried on to a great extent in this parish, there being at present upwards of 3000 looms employed. Within these 10 years, however, this branch of manufactures has undergone an almost total change. Before that time, they were employed in lawns, shirting, check, and handkerchiefs, linen handkerchiefs for printing, and blounks, consisting of linen-warp, and cotton-weft, which were printed for neck-handkerchiefs, gowns, and bed-furniture. But now they are almost wholly in the muslin line, very few lawns or checks being manufactured in this place. Though the muslin trade has been but lately established, yet it has already risen to great perfection. And were the importation of East India muslins in some small measure restrained, and the fine cotton wool brought home, it is impossible to say to what extent this branch might be carried, and how much this country might be benefited by it. But as the manufactures of this parish are immediately connected with the city of Glasgow, they will be more properly and fully treated of there. It is therefore unnecessary to say any thing farther of them in this place. Only it may be proper to take notice of the improvements introduced by Mr. George Mackintosh, a gentleman whose spirited and successful exertions have been of the greatest benefit to the manufactures of this country, and by whom I have been favoured with the following account: The cudbear manufacture carried on here, under the firm of George Macintosh and Co. was begun in 1777, occupying about 1 1/2 acres of ground, compactly built, and well walled round with stone and lime. This is a manufacture for making a dye-stuff, now becoming a useful article, and employed chiefly in the woollen and silk manufactures of Britain, and is made from an excrescence that grows upon rocks and stones, a species of the liechen or rock-moss,which, with certain chemical preparations, makes a dye-stuff called cudbear. It was known and used in the Highlands of Scotland by the name of corkes or crottel, some hundred years ago. But it was Messrs. George and Cuthbert Gordon, (now Dr Cuthbert Gordon), who first attempted, and had the merit of bringing the process to a regular system. They, in conjunction with Messrs. Alexanders of Edinburgh, erected a manufacture for it in Leith, in which they persevered for several years. But it proved in the end unsuccessful. Considerable improvements have been made in the manufacture since its establishment in Glasgow. And the Company finding that the rock-moss in Scotland would soon be exhausted, early sent a person of skill to explore the rocks of Sweden and Norway, whence they, for some time past, import all they use. But there it is also beginning to be scarce. Russia appears to produce none of it. This manufacture consumes a very considerable quantity of human urine; above 2000 gallons a-day. They have about 1500 iron-bound casks dispersed among the manufacturing and tradesmen's houses in Glasgow and suburbs. For each cask full they pay a certain price, which, with the expense of collecting, costs them about 800l. a-year, for an article which formerly ran in waste through the kennels and drains of the streets. The dying of Turkey red on cotton, though a very late discovery in this kingdom, was established in Glasgow earlier than in any part of Great Britain. In the year 1785, Mr George Mackintosh being in London, fell in with Monsieur Papillon, a Turkey red dyer from Rouen, carried him with him to Glasgow, and, in conjunction with Mr. David Dale, built an extensive dye-house at Dalmarnock in this parish, upon the banks of the river Clyde, where cotton is dyed a real Turkey red, equal in beauty and solidity to East India colours. There is another dyehouse, quite extensive, lately erected for the same purpose, in the neighbourhood of this one, also in the barony parish, under the management of Mr. Papillon, who is now connected with another Company. At both places the Turkey red colours are now made in great perfection. By means of these establishments, the ingenious and industrious manufacturers of this place are enabled to make cotton-pulicate handkerchiefs, equal in beauty and quality to any in the known world. And although the Messrs. Bouilles (one of whom is fixed at Manchester) did obtain a premium from Parliament for the Turkey red, the business was first established here; and specimens of manufactured pulicates of a superior colour, it is said, were produced before a committee of the House of Commons, (made by Mr. Mackintosh, who was the first who manufactured any here) while Mr Bouille could only produce cuts of cotton-yarn done by him. It is now computed that there are above 1500 looms employed in this branch of pulicate alone, in Glasgow and neighbourhood. This colour is so fast, or fixed, that when wove with brown cotton, or linen yarn, it resists and stands the whole process of bleaching, and acquires more beauty and lustre by this trying operation; and when wrought in with bleached yarn, requires 24 hours boiling in soap and ashes, to reduce it to its vivid standard. Acids which destroy most other reds, in a moderate degree, improve this. Making Turkey red is a most intricate process, requiring about 15 different operations in the common course of dying.
Near to the cudbear manufacture, is just now commenced a business carried on by George and Charles Mackintosh, entirely new in this, or, we believe, in any other country. It is the making of a newly discovered chymical preparation, which answers as a real substitute in dying and printing, for saccharum satuni, or sugar of lead and allum. It is hoped it will be an useful undertaking, as hitherto all, or by far the greatest part of the sugar of lead used in Britain has been imported from Holland. These ingenious and economical people, though a duty of 3d. the pound is imposed on this article when imported, and though receiving their lead from Britain, yet have hitherto been able to undersell all who have made any attempt of the same kind in this kingdom. Mr. Mackintosh and his son Charles intended this for a sugar of lead business; but in the course of their experiments in that way, this improvement occurred to Charles Mackintosh, who is a very able chymist; and the work is now entirely employed for this purpose. They supply the printers with this preparation at a lower rate than that which is usually made from the Dutch sugar of lead. The principal printfields in the country have tried, are now using, and approve of it, as making an equally fixed, and, at the same time, a more beautiful colour than that done in the usual manner with sugar of lead and allum. And I understand they can supply the whole consumpt of the country.+2
(+2 In the year 1764, a cotton mill was built at North Woodside in this parish by Mr William Gillespie, which gives employment to about 400 persons, men, women and children. This, with the people engaged in the bleachfield, and otherwise, has made Woodside a considerable village, while it has become the seat of plenty and comfort, the happy consequence of industry and manufactures. Sensible of the advantages of religion and good morals, to promote the industry and happiness of the people, the benevolent proprietor pays particular attention to these. He has not only engaged a master to teach the children, through the week, to read, but has also fitted up, and supports at his own expense, a place for public worship on the Lord's day, where a decent congregation regularly assembles. And in the afternoon, the preacher publicly catechises and instructs the children. The knowledge thus diffused among the children and the inhabitants of that part of the parish, is an honourable testimony to the fidelity and diligence of Mr James Steven the preacher; and the good effects, it is to be hoped, will extend, at least among some, much further than merely that regularity, sobriety, and industry, which serve so much to promote their temporal prosperity and comfort. The yarn spun at this mill, employs about 450 weavers, exclusive of those who get their bread by winding, starching, etc.
In 1772, the same gentleman established a printfield at Anderston, which with the bleachfield, gave employment to between 300 and 400 people. The cloth there printed, may employ 500 or 600 operative weavers. Besides these, there are several other bleachfields at Finnieston, Calton, Springfield, and other places, conducted upon the most improved principles, and which give bread to a great number of persons. About 30 years ago, a large brewery was erected near Anderston, for brewing ale and porter, both for foreign and home consumpt. To so great an extent do they carry out business, that near a 9th part of the whole excise of Scotland has been paid by them.
At Partick on the river Kelvin, there are very extensive wheat mills erected the greatest part of which belong to the incorporation of bakers in Glasgow. The mills are well constructed , and much machinery introduced for the abridgement of labour. At the bakers wheat mills alone, at an average of the 4 last years from May 1786 to May 1790, 36,113 bolls of wheat and a-half have been annually milled.
Seed-time and Harvest. - The time of sowing wheat, is from the middle of September to the middle of October; oats, pease, beans, and flax, from the middle of March to the middle of April; potatoes and barley in May; and turnips in June and July. The harvest generally begins about the middle or end of August, and the crop is got totally in about the middle of October, except in cold and wet seasons. The price of grain and provisions in this parish, is regulated by the Glasgow markets, and need not be here separately stated.
The Price of Labour. - The wages of day=labourers are, in winter, from 10d. to 1s. and in the summer from 1s. 2d. to 1s. 4d. a-day. Journeymen weavers earn from 10s. to 14s. a-week, and some 20s. In harvest, the men's wages, a-day, for reaping, are from 1s. 4d. to 1s. 6d., and the women's 1s.; both of them furnish their own provisions out of their wages. Colliers earn from 2s. 9d. to 3s. each day; but are so many days out of the pit, that they seldom, at an average, earn above 30l. annually. The wages of the domestic servants are, for men 10l., and for women from 3l. to 5l. a-year. A ploughman's wages are, in general about 10l. or 12l.; but some who have excelled at the ploughing matches, some time ago introduced into this country, have got their wages advanced to 25l. a-year, besides bad, board, and washing. The expenses of a common labourer's family, when married, are generally about 16l. a-year.)
Division and Rent of Land. - The whole valued rent of the parish, as stated in the cess-books for the county, is 13,000l. Scotch; but of this 4000l. is held by the College of Glasgow, as the teind of the archbishoprick, for which they have never yet paid any public burdens. The heritors are 92 in number, of whom 59 reside in the parish, either constantly or occasionally. The farms are, in general, about 60 acres, though there are some of 160, and some as low as 20 acres. In the neighbourhood of the villages, a great deal of the land is rented in very small parcels by the tradesmen, for the purpose of rearing potatoes,etc. The soil being very different, the rents are also different; but from the spirit for improvement which prevails, and the increasing demand in the city of Glasgow for the produce of the farms, the rents are everywhere rising. The greatest part of the land is enclosed, the face of the country much improved, and the tenants better able to afford a higher rent than formerly. At present, there is some of the worst ground rented at 10s. the acre, and the best arable land at 3l.; garden ground is let at from 4l. to 6l. a-year. There are 3 different kinds of ploughs used, according to the nature of the soil; but the old Scotch plough is the most common.
Villages, Rents of Houses, and New Houses. - As manufactures as carried to a great extent in the city of Glasgow, their influence is felt on all the country round; and a number of very populous and thriving villages have been built in this parish. These are Calton and Bridgeton, Grahamston, Anderston, Finnieston, Clayslap, North-Woodside, Cowcaddens, Parkhouse, Camlachie, Parkhead, Westmuir, Shettleston, Lightburn, Callendar and Dennistoun. In these, in general, rent of the houses is from 2l. to 5l. a-year, though there are many much higher, and some as low as 15s. Within the last ten years, 486 new dwelling houses or tenements, have been built: and of these the greater part have been erected within the last 4 or 5 years. It is to be observed, that many of these houses are made to accommodate 2, 3, or 5 or 6 families. None of the houses erected in the New Town of Glasgow are included in the enumeration, though the greatest part of it is situated within the Barony parish.
Population. - According to Dr. Webster's report, the number of souls then was 3905. In the beginning of the year 1791, there were living in the Barony parish of Glasgow, exclusive of the whole of the New Town of Glasgow, 18,451 persons. The proportion of souls to a family is 4 nearly.
Both the marriages and the births are, in fact, somewhat more numerous than stated above, because every year the number of irregular clandestine marriages is increasing; but the above table contains only those who have been regularly married, or have judicially acknowledged their marriage before the session. And the number of births is taken from the register of baptisms; but some of the dissenters, from principle, and some other inhabitants, from inattention, neglect to give their children's names for registration. No account can be given of the burials, because, though there are now three burying places in the parish, yet a great part of the inhabitants are interred in the burying grounds belonging to the city.
Public Houses. - In the beginning of the year 1791, there were 169 public houses for retailing malt and spiritous liquors. The vast increase of these houses is one of the greatest injuries to the morals, the health, and the prosperity of the inhabitants. In almost every village, several low houses of this sort are to be found; and the consequences are at once both obvious and melancholy. If the number of virtuous inhabitants be the strength of a state, then enlightened policy should lead to the suppression of many of these houses, and particularly to discourage the use of all spiritous liquors.
Ecclesiastical State of the Parish, School, Poor, Etc. - The parish church is a part of that venerable building, the cathedral of Glasgow, and has been occupied by the Barony since the year 1595. Being of an arched roof, which is low, and supported by a great number of massy pillars, it is exceedingly dark, dirty, and incommodious; of this the heritors are sensible, that a visitation of the presbytery has been called upon it this year; and there is some probability of another church being built for the accommodation of the inhabitants. At Shettleston, in the east end of the parish, a Chapel of Ease was erected about 50 years ago; and there is another, as mentioned above, at North Woodside, supported at the sole expense of Mr. William Gillespie. Another chapel is much needed in the village of Calton, and, it is to be hoped, will be provided. At Anderson, there is a Relief Church, built about 20 years ago: one Cameronian meeting in the Calton, and another at Sandyhills, in the east end of the parish. Though there are many dissenters of different denominations in the parish, these are the only places of worship, because a great number of the inhabitants are accommodated in the city of Glasgow. The numbers connected with each of the different denominations of Christians in the parish, including their children, is as follows;
(+3 Though, from the above statement it appears, that the number of dissenters from the Established Church is very considerable, yet, perhaps there are few parishes where less of a party-spirit is to be found. the people of various persuasions meet in the intercourses of social life, and even cultivate habits of intimacy and friendship with each other, without suffering their minds to be embittered with disputes respecting their differences of opinion or profession. In this liberality of mind, they have an amiable example set them by their ministers, who are men of good sense, learning and piety. And it is with pleasure I do them the justice to acknowledge, that the dissenters, in general, are as pious, virtuous, upright, industrious, and respectable, as any in the parish.)
The King is patron. The stipend is about 165l. annually, including the value of the glebe, consisting of about 6 acres and a half, and the rent allowed by the heritors in lieu of a manse. - There are few of the inhabitants who have been bred in this parish, who have not been taught to read; and most of them can write, and understand the common rules of arithmetic. Education is so cheap, as not to be placed beyond the reach of the poorest. And the people are so impressed with a sense of its importance, that all parents, if not most profligate themselves, are exceedingly anxious to have their children instructed in reading. They often cheerfully deny themselves many of the comforts of life to give their children education; and many of them have been rewarded, by seeing them rising to affluence and respect in society. As the Barony parish is very extensive, the children could not be accommodated at one school. In the beginning, therefore, of this century, the legal salary was divided into four equal parts, and four schools erected in those places of the parish then judged most convenient for the inhabitants: One at Shettleston, where an excellent school-house, in which the master is also accommodated, has been very lately built by private subscription; the master has also the benefit of two small mortifications, paid by the session: one school at Rachazie, for the north-east quarter of the parish: one at Lambhill or Ruchhill, for the north-west quarter: and one at Anderston, where a school-house was mortified by the laird of Stobcross. Besides these, there are fifteen private schools, attended some of them by above 70 children: a charity school in the Calton, supported by Mr. David Dale, the master has 15l. salary annually; and one in the mill at Woodside, supported by Mr. Gillespie, for the instruction of the children attending his cotton-mill. There are also 4 Sunday schools, very well attended. viz. two in Calton, of about 70 children, boys and girls each; one in Camlachie, only for boys; and one at Shettleston. The school-wages paid in the villages are 2s.6d. or 3s. the quarter; and at one school, 4s.; and in the country, in general, 2s. a-quarter. Many children also in the neighbourhood of Glasgow attend schools in the city, for different branches of education. - The number of poor upon the roll of the session last year, (1790), amounted to 186. And the sum expended for their relief was 247l. 8s. 4d., which, at an average, is 2s. a-month nearly to each. The least given to any person is 1s. a-month, and none received more than 5s. a-month, excepting one woman, who is insane, for whom 12s. a-month is paid by the session; and some children, who are boarded till they are able to so something for themselves, at the rate of 3l. 12s. 8d. a-year. The session also pays for their education, as they do for all the children of the poor upon their roll. +4
(+4 The session indeed are particularly attentive to this, being fully persuaded that a proper education and habits of sobriety and industry are of the greatest importance to the comfort of the individual, and the benefit of society. The finds, provided for the support of these poor, under the management of the session were,
The collections at the church-doors, amounting to L.143 14 2 1/4
For proclamation of banns for marriage, 46 10 9
Interest of money, 22 10 0
For a few seats in the parish church belonging to
the session, and some other incidental sums, 14 12 10 1/2
And an assessment paid by the heritors, 25 0 0
L.252 9 9 3/4
The session are so much convinced, that regular assessments for the support of the poor, have the most dangerous tendency, that they exert themselves to the utmost to prevent the necessity of them. It is but a few years since they were obliged to have recourse to them, and they hope soon to be relieved from the necessity of resorting to so dangerous an expedient, as they expect a commodious place of worship will be provided for the inhabitants. It is proper to mention, that by the care of the elders in the distribution, no assessment has been laid on the heritors, to a greater extent, than the sum stated above; and some years no assessment has been required. Before any person or family is admitted to receive any sessional charity, a strict examination is made into their employment, state of health, circumstances and earnings, all of which are distinctly entered into a book kept for the purpose, and to which recourse is had at any time, that the charity may be economically and properly distributed. The sums given by the session, are, in many cases, very inadequate to the necessities of particular persons; when this is the case, private contributions are made among their neighbours to supply the deficiency, and a great deal of money is annually raised in this manner, which is always bestowed at the sight of the elder of the portion. Besides this, there are many charitable societies established in the parish, which afford much relief to tradesmen and labourers when laid aside from work by sickness. In general, the members, when in health, besides their first entry-money, pay a certain small sum quarterly into the funds of the society, for which they are entitled to a weekly provision in sickness; funeral expenses also are allowed, in case of death, and some of them also give a certain allowance to the widow. Many tradesmen are members of several of these societies at the same time; so that in sickness, they are better provided for than in health. These societies are of much advantage; because in this way, youth and health make provision for old age and sickness. They are also friendly to the morals of the members, because riotous, disorderly persons forfeit their right in the society, and, in general, they are cut off from any support in diseases evidently brought on by intemperance and vice. Of these societies, there are 16 in the parish. Some of them distribute annually from 7l. to 20l., and one of them distributes from 45l. to 50l. In general, the members receive from 4s. to 5s. a-week, when confined to bed, and 2s. or 3s. when able to go about, but not work. One society also, defraying funeral charges, gives to widows 10s. yearly, for the education of any children under 10 years of age.)
Roads and Canals. - All the great roads leading to the city of Glasgow, except by the two bridges on the S.side, pass through this parish. They are all kept in good order; but on the N. side of the city they have been originally formed upon a most improper plan, being carried over the top of every hill, instead of being led about the side, which would have been as short, and nearly level. The Great Canal between Forth and Clyde passes through part of this parish, as does that from Monkland. The Forth and Clyde navigation was begun to be cut on the 10th of July, 1768, and was opened as far as Stockingfield in this parish, 10th July 1775; a side-cut was brought forward to Hamilton-hill, November 1777, where a large bason was formed for the reception of vessels, and large granaries and other buildings erected. They are now carrying forward this side-cut, in order to form a junction with the Monkland Canal, which runs eastward through this parish to the collieries in Monkland parish, and extends to 12 miles in length. [On this side-cut, a new bason is to be formed at Hundred Acre Hill in this parish, within half a mile of Glasgow; here granaries, and other buildings are to be erected, and a new village built, to be called Port Dundas. The Canal was opened from sea to sea on the 29th day of July 1790, and is carried over four aqueduct bridges in this parish. The great bridge over Kelvin was begun in June 1787, and finished in April 1791. It is carried over a valley 400 feet long, and 65 deep. It consists of 4 very large arches of excellent mason work; is in height about 83 feet from the bed of the river to the top of the bridge, and is one of the most stupendous works of the kind perhaps in the world. The Canal is about 56 feet wide at the surface, and 27 feet at the bottom, is 8 feet deep, and admits vessels of 19 feet beam, and 68 feet keel. On the Canal there are 5 locks in this parish, within the space of 200 yards, each lock is 74 feet between the gates, and 20 between the walls. There is also a very good dry dock for the vessels employed upon the Canal.]
General Character of the People. - The general character of the people, as yet, is that of sobriety and industry, though, from the great increase in wealth, and the number of public houses for retailing spiritous liquors, intemperance, with its long train of evils, is becoming more prevalent than formerly among the labouring people. And it is to be lamented, that by the cheapness of spiritous liquors, and the increasing use of them, many young people of both sexes are early corrupted and ruined. Happy would it be for the health, the morals, and the prosperity of the people, if fewer public-houses were licensed, the use of spiritous liquors checked, and good wholesome ale substituted in their place.
Sinclair, Sir John (1794); "The Statistical Account of Scotland." Volume 12. Edinburgh, William Creech.
NOTES: Updated for 1st July, 2010.
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